Q. What is the difference between footnotes and a bibliography when you are using the Chicago Manual of Style?


In the Chicago Manual of Style (also known as Turabian), a bibliography is a page on which you list the sources that you have quoted, paraphrased, and/or summarized in the body of your research-based assignment.  Bibliographies are optional in the Chicago Manual of Style, but be sure to ask your professor for their requirements.

Footnotes or endnotes are how you give credit to a source in the text itself. You use a superscript number in the text that corresponds to a note with citation information at the end of the document (endnotes) or at the bottom of the page (footnotes). The format of the footnote/endnote citation is a slightly modified version of the citation you list in the bibliography.

For example:


"Lincoln's vision of democracy—a vision, it should be noted, strongly shared by Tarbell—could only be saved if the Union was saved."1


1 Robert G. Wick, “‘He Was a Friend of Us Poor Men’: Ida M. Tarbell and Abraham Lincoln’s View of Democracy,” Indiana Magazine of History 114, no. 4 (December 2018): 255, https://doi.org/10.2979/indimagahist.114.4.01.


Wick, Robert G. “‘He Was a Friend of Us Poor Men’: Ida M. Tarbell and Abraham Lincoln’s View of Democracy.” Indiana Magazine of History 114, no. 4 (December 2018): 255–82. https://doi.org/10.2979/indimagahist.114.4.01.

More Resources:

How to add footnotes/endnotes in Microsoft Word

Chicago Manual of Style

OWL at Purdue- Chicago Manual of Style

What is a DOI

  • Last Updated Jun 10, 2020
  • Views 13
  • Answered By Patty Hude

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